Across Atlantic Ice: The Origin of America's Clovis Culture

By Dennis J. Stanford

Who have been the 1st people to inhabit North the US? in response to the now standard tale, mammal hunters entered the continent a few 12,000 years in the past through a land bridge that spanned the Bering Sea. precise stone instruments belonging to the Clovis tradition tested the presence of those early New international humans. yet are the Clovis instruments Asian in beginning? Drawing from unique archaeological research, paleoclimatic examine, and genetic reports, famous archaeologists Dennis J. Stanford and Bruce A. Bradley problem the previous narrative and, within the approach, counter traditional—and usually subjective—approaches to archaeological trying out for old relatedness. The authors follow rigorous scholarship to a speculation that areas the technological antecedents of Clovis in Europe and posits that the 1st american citizens crossed the Atlantic by means of boat and arrived previous to formerly notion. providing archaeological and oceanographic facts to help this statement, the publication dismantles the outdated paradigm whereas persuasively linking Clovis know-how with the tradition of the Solutrean those that occupied France and Spain greater than 20,000 years ago.

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Four. Akmak artifacts from Ushki degrees VI and VII and Bolshoi Elgakhchan three. five. Akmak artifacts from Onion Portage and Nogahabara 1 three. 6. Pre-Nenana and Denali artifacts three. 7. Slotted antler issues and ivory instruments three. eight. Projectile issues from Mesa and Sluiceway three. nine. Nenana artifacts four. 1. North the US throughout the LGM exhibiting the level of glaciers, uncovered continental shelf, and early Paleo-American websites four. 2. Meadowcroft and Krajacic artifacts four. three. Cactus Hill artifacts four. four. Miles aspect artifacts four. five. Miles aspect stratigraphy exhibiting in situ quartzite anvil four. 6. Oyster Cove artifacts four. 7. Cinmar laurel leaf biface four. eight. situation of the South Mountain rhyolite resource within the Chesapeake Bay area relative to the Cinmar website four. nine. submit LGM sea point upward push over the continental shelf four. 10. Jefferson Island artifacts and Florida pre-Clovis issues four. eleven. past due level preforms from the Johnson website four. 12. Proposed periglacial element development from the Mid-Atlantic seaboard to the Brooks variety of Alaska five. 1. Aurignacian and Gravettian artifacts five. 2. Magdalenian artifacts five. three. Solutrean web site distribution, glaciation, and landforms of northwestern Europe on the final Glacial greatest five. four. Solutrean perishable artifacts five. five. Solutrean stone instruments five. 6. Solutrean projectile issues and inset blade for bone projectile element five. 7. Casts of 4 of the fourteen huge Solutrean laurel leaf bifaces from the Volgu Cache five. eight. Solutrean blade middle forms five. nine. Laurel leaf creation stages five. 10. Spanish Solutrean indented base issues five. eleven. Solutrean rock artwork figures of riverine and marine animals five. 12. British laurel leaf bifaces 6. 1. Dynamic platforms research chart of Beringian Sluiceway biface, Clovis aspect, and French Solutrean laurel leaf production sequences 6. 2. Technological aid comparability of center part production of bifaces displaying overshot flake scars 6. three. Cluster research dendrogram of chosen Beringian, Early Paleo-American, and past due Paleolithic ecu assemblages by way of instrument style 6. four. Cluster research dendrogram of chosen Beringian, Early Paleo-American, and past due Paleolithic eu assemblages by way of know-how 7. 1. Comparisons of Solutrean, pre-Clovis, and Clovis lithic instruments 7. 2. Laurel leaf bifaces 7. three. Bladelet and blade cores 7. four. Projectile issues made up of bone or ivory 7. five. Speculative reconstruction of a Clovis harpoonlike bone weapon process 7. 6. comparability of bone artifacts 7. 7. Incised stones concept to teach fletched spears 7. eight. Oversize Solutrean and Clovis bifaces 7. nine. comparability of constitution pebble flooring 7. 10. Radiocarbon date levels of the Solutrean, Mid-Atlantic Early Paleo-American, Southeast Early Paleo-American, and Clovis eight. 1. Solutrean websites in northern Spain and adjoining southwest France eight. 2. Ecological zones the place the highest-return assets have been to be had all year long eight. three. Seasonal chart of seal and walrus presence at the northern Spanish coasts and l. a. Riera Cave use in Solutrean instances nine.

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