British Policy in Mesopotamia, 1903-1914 (St. Antony's Middle East Monographs)

British imperial pursuits in Iraq in the course of and after the 1st global warfare are popular and feature usually been studied. yet what of British coverage in the direction of the Mesopotamian provinces sooner than 1914? during this well-documented research, Stuart Cohen offers the 1st coherent account of starting to be British curiosity in those provinces, within which the protection of India, advertisement concerns, the security of Shia Muslim pilgrims, and worry of a German-dominated Berlin-to-Baghdad railway all had an essential position to play. First released in 1976 and now to be had in paperback for the 1st time, this booklet is key analyzing not just for an realizing of the making of British coverage in the direction of the Arab provinces of the Ottoman empire, but additionally of the final days of Turkish rule in Iraq itself.

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G. , sixteen June 1908 PD four, 1908, a hundred ninety, col. 711; 27 July 1908 PD four, 1908, 193, col. 988; 22 July 1909 PD five, 1909, eight, col. 596; and 1 Sep. 1909 PD five, 1909, 10, col. 346. 24 Jan. 1910 Stanley-L1. Smith, BT 11/3. five Aug. 1909 Ritchie minute, L/P & S/10, vol. fifty seven (2). Above, p. ninety two and minute on 12 Oct. 1909 Lowther-Hardinge pte. , FO 371/ 764/2074/31619. 22 Jan. 1910 Ashley memo. , BT 11/3. Stanley memo. (not dated yet most likely wintry weather 1909), BT 11/3. [145] 591 Mesopotamia 06 Ch 6 12/6/08 8:51 AM web page 146 B R I T I S H P O L I C Y I N M E S O P OTA M I A , 1 nine zero three – 1 nine 1 four seventy one 21 may possibly 1909 Morley-Minto pte. , Morley MSS, four, p. 112. seventy two 10 Aug. 1908 Morley-Minto pte. , Morley MSS, three, p. 244. The reference is to the Mohammera line. seventy three 27 June 1909 Stanley memo. , BT 11/3. The reference is to the Willcocks scheme. seventy four 19 June 1909 Ritchie memo. , L/P & S/10, vol. fifty seven (2). The reference is to the Tigris valley call for. seventy five 22 June 1909 Morley-Grey pte. , gray MSS, fifty nine, FO 800/98. seventy six The word used to be Marling’s. 10 Jan. 1910 memo; enclosed in FO 371/991/100/1801. seventy seven 27 June 1909 Stanley memo. , BT 11/3. seventy eight 22 Jan. 1910 Ashley memo. , ibid. and 1 Feb. 1910 LI. Smith-Churchill, ibid. seventy nine 20 Jan. 1910 gray memo. , FO 371/991/100/1355. eighty four March 1910 LI. Smith-Hardinge pte. , FO 371/991/100/7681. eighty one 31 Dec. 1909 Babington Smith-Cassel, BS MSS, 10 and eleven Apr. 1910 Babington Smith-Hardinge, BS MSS, eleven. eighty two Minute on 18 March 1910 FO-IO, L/P & S/10, vol. fifty seven (2), no. 1910/3146. eighty three Minute on 6 might 1910 FO-IO, enclosing the despatch of 20 Apr. to Lowther, L/P & S/10, vol. fifty seven (2), no. 1910/3539. 18 Apr. 1910 Stanley memo. , BT 11/3. eighty four 18 Apr. 1910 Stanley memo. , BT 11/3. eighty five 19 Apr. 1910 LI. Smith memo. , BT 11/3. 86 Minute on 6 Nov. 1909 Hardinge memo. , L/P & S/10, vol. 87, no. 1909/4183a. 87 7 Nov. 1909 memo. (not signed yet in Stanley’s hand), BT 11/3. 88 My emphasis. The query of “right” used to be no longer at factor; the query of likelihood was once. 89 may well 1909 FO memo. , L/P & S/10, vol. fifty seven (2); noted above, p. 104, n. 204. ninety 27 Sep. 1909 Hardinge-Nicolson pte. , NIC MSS, 1909 (1), FO 800/342. p. 162. ninety one Bastille Day 1909 Grey-Lowther pte. , BD 6, p. 374, ed. be aware. ninety two 18 Jan. 1910 Hardinge-Nicolson pte. , NIC MSS, 1910 (i), FO 800/343. p. 24. ninety three five March 1910 mins by means of Parker, Hardinge and gray, FO 371/991/100/7681. [146] 591 Mesopotamia 07 Ch 7 12/6/08 8:51 AM web page 147 PA RT T H R E E T HE M ODIFICATION OF P OLICY, 1910–1914 591 Mesopotamia 07 Ch 7 12/6/08 8:51 AM web page 148 591 Mesopotamia 07 Ch 7 12/6/08 8:51 AM web page 149 advent The Anglo-Turkish and Anglo-German Baghdad Railway agreements of 1913 and 19141 contrasted in content material, aim and tone with the 1910 despatch to Lowther. First, the agreements printed that Britain had deserted its particular focus at the Tigris valley railway. The Mesopotamian railway query used to be handled now not in isolation yet at the side of a couple of different concerns. those integrated the limits of Aden, the prestige of the Persian Gulf, the rights of the Smyrna-Aidin Railway corporation, Mesopotamian irrigation, petroleum and navigation concessions and uniform premiums on all railways in Asiatic Turkey.

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