Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology

By Timothy Darvill

This is the main wide-ranging, finished, and updated dictionary of archaeology to be had. Over 4,000 A-Z entries clarify the phrases encountered in educational and well known archaeological literature, in lectures, and on tv. issues lined comprise artifacts, ideas, terminology, humans, websites, and sessions, and professional components resembling business and maritime archaeology. This moment version is absolutely revised and up to date, with one hundred fifty new entries on archaeological websites, phrases, activities, and other people, plus prolonged insurance of archaeological source administration and archaeological idea. whereas the dictionary's basic concentration is on Europe, the outdated international, and the Americas, as those are the areas the place archaeology has turn into most sensible verified, it is usually key archaeological websites all over the world. A quick-reference part covers chronological classes, Egyptian rulers and dynasties, Roman rulers and dynasties, rulers of britain to advert 1066, and significant foreign conventions and proposals. New to this variation are advised, updated net hyperlinks for over a hundred entries at the Dictionary of Archaeology significant other site, that would be on a regular basis up to date to maintain hyperlinks thoroughly present.

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S. CRAWFORD , the quarterly magazine is released by way of the Antiquity belief and comprises papers, reviews, stories, information, and editorial remark in terms of archaeology of all classes in all international locations. again - New seek antler [Ma]. Bone-like constructions came across at the heads of male crimson deer, fallow deer, roe deer, and elk (moose), and on either female and male reindeer (caribou). Antlers are grown within the spring and shed each year within the iciness, other than in reindeer which shed their antlers within the spring. Antler was once a invaluable fabric for making instruments and kit of varied types all through northern Europe, northern Asia, and North the United States from Palaeolithic occasions via into the medieval interval and past. again - New seek antler comb [Ar]. one of those software present in the Neolithic in southern Britain, and infrequently somewhere else, comprising a bit of red-deer antler minimize throughout and with the lower finish grooved right into a ring of enamel that are conscientiously pointed and in such a lot specimens convey a excessive measure of polish from put on. at the foundation of ethnographic analogy those instruments are believed to were used for elimination hair and dressing animal hides. again - New seek antler choose [Ar]. a kind of device came upon largely among the websites of Neolithic groups in northwestern Europe. they're shaped from a red-deer antler from which all however the forehead tine has been got rid of; the beam types the deal with and the forehead tine the ‘pick’. They have been used for excavating soil and quarrying out stone and bedrock. The marks left through their use were detected at the facets of ditches, pits, and shafts. Experiments recommend that they have been used way more like levers than the type of pickaxe that's swung from over the shoulder. again - New seek antler sleeve [Ar]. a section of deer antler which inserts over a stone awl to shape a sleeve among the axehead and the wood haft into which the mixed awl and sleeve is geared up. Being extra resilient to surprise than wooden, the antler sleeve lessens the danger of splitting the wood haft whereas the awl is in use. again - New seek Antonine Wall, united kingdom [Si]. Roman frontier paintings in northern Britain extending throughout Scotland around the Forth–Clyde isthmus for a distance of 60km among Carriden within the east to previous Kilpatrick within the west. there have been additionally flanking forts alongside the coast on each side. in-built levels within the early 140s advert after a sequence of profitable army campaigns in Scotland led via Antoninus Pius . the most frontier contains a stone origin approximately four. 3m large on which stood a turf financial institution as much as 3m excessive, fronted by way of a berm and a ditch quite often approximately 12m vast and 3m deep. The boundary was once outfitted through troops from all 3 legions in Britannia on the time: the II Augusta, the VI Vitrix, and the XX Valeria Vitrix. Forts have been developed at periods of approximately 3km, nineteen of them in all, hooked up to the again of the wall, many with annexes to the south for garage. A street, the army approach, associated the forts. sign stations have been additionally outfitted among a few forts. The Antonine Wall succeeded Hadrian's Wall because the northern frontier of Britannia in advert 143, yet used to be deserted in advert 158 following a retreat southwards to Hadrian's Wall.

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