Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature

By Annette Yoshiko Reed

Within the publication of the Watchers, an Enochic apocalypse from the 3rd century BCE, the "sons of God" of Gen 6:1-4 are accused of corrupting humankind via their teachings of metalworking, cosmetology, magic, and divination. through tracing the alterations of this motif in moment Temple, Rabbinic, and early medieval Judaism and early, overdue vintage, and Byzantine Christianity, this booklet sheds mild at the historical past of interpretation of Genesis, the altering prestige of Enochic literature, and where of parabiblical texts and traditions within the interchange among Jews and Christians in overdue Antiquity and the early heart a while.

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6–11 includes much more historical texts or traditions. three the following unit, 1 En. 12–16, seems to be a later composition. This unit makes use of the trope of prophetic rebuke to insert Enoch into the tale of the Watchers. four It used to be most probably positioned in its present context to function a transition among the account of angelic descent in 1 En. 6–11 and the account of Enoch’s otherworldly trips in 1 En. 17 and following. five additionally, its lexical and thematic parallels with 1 En. 6–11 means that it translates a few kind of the sooner unit. 6 via advantage of the inclusion and juxtaposition of those devices, the e-book of the Watchers preserves past traditions approximately angelic descent along later makes an attempt to appreciate them and to return to phrases with definitely the right position of the Watchers within the foundation and unfold of earthly evils. The apocalypse hence preserves a number of phases within the interpretation of the angelic descent delusion, such that its redaction-history is, in additional methods than one, the start of the tale of its reception and reinterpretation. the current bankruptcy will development in 3 sections, mirroring diversified levels within the redactional development of the apocalypse. we are going to start with 1 En. 6–11, concentrating on the functionality of the motif of illicit angelic guide inside of 2 three four five 6 Nickelsburg, “Reflections,” 311; Dimant, “1 Enoch 6–11,” 323. Charles, remark, thirteen; Nickelsburg, “Apocalyptic and Myth,” 384–86; Dimant, “1 Enoch 6–11,” 323–24, 329; idem, “Fallen Angels,” 23–72; Hanson, “Rebellion,” 195–233. Jansen, Henochgestalt, 114–17. Newsom, “Development,” 313. Newsom, “Development,” 315, 319; Collins, Apocalyptic mind's eye, 38; cf. Tigchelaar, Prophets, 156. 26 FALLEN ANGELS AND THE historical past OF JUDAISM AND CHRISTIANITY this composite unit and contemplating the importance of the subjects of educating linked to the Watchers. Then, we are going to flip to the translation of those chapters within the subsequent unit, 1 En. 12–16, interpreting the literary and epistemological capabilities of the guide motif in the description of Enoch’s fee to rebuke the Watchers. this may be via an research of the importance of the fallen angels and the guideline motif in the ebook of the Watchers as a redacted entire. In end, we'll contemplate the prestige that the apocalypse, in its ultimate shape, claims for itself vis-`a-vis the cloth approximately Enoch and the “sons of God” in Genesis. In utilizing the redactional progress of the e-book of the Watchers to make clear its ultimate shape, this bankruptcy departs from such a lot earlier scholarship at the traditions in regards to the fallen angels during this apocalypse. in keeping with R. H. Charles’ foundational paintings on 1 Enoch, sleek study into the Enochic fantasy of angelic descent has as a rule keen on the earliest unit, 1 En. 6–11, and has approached those chapters from source-critical and formcritical views. via keeping apart fabric that includes diverse subject matters and angelic figures, students have sought to recuperate the initially autonomous traditions that lie in the back of this portion of the booklet of the Watchers.

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